End of Empire100 days in 1945 that changed Asia and the world.

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  • British vengeance in Surabaya

    9 November 1945. During a week of relative quiet in Surabaya following Sukarno’s peace broadcast, up to 8,000 internees are successfully evacuated. Once completed, the British seek revenge for Mallaby’s killing. All women and children are warned to leave the city by evening and an impossible ultimatum in leaflets dropped from the air demands all arms are handed in by dawn and Mallaby’s killers handed over. With the Republican government dithering, the local authorities reject the ultimatum.

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    Official portrait of Sukarno, 1949