End of Empire100 days in 1945 that changed Asia and the world.

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    China-283x300

     ‘top anchor’ That the imperial era was coming to an end was apparent, for Axis and Allied powers alike. How the era would end, and what would replace it, was profoundly affected by events between August and November 1945. Click to a country:  Burma,      China,      Indochina I (Cambodia and Laos),      Indochina II (Vietnam),     Indonesia, Japan,      Korea,      Malaya,      Mongolia and Manchuria,      Philippines,      Thailand   Burma Special Edition: Part I    Part II    Part III   Expert Analyses (click on any title) Mike Charney, Aung San emerges as a civilian politician. Susanne Prager-Nyein, The birth of Burma’s modern army.  Marc Gallacchio, General Order No. 1. Susanne Prager-Nyein and Tun Kyaw Nyein, Setting the stage for the final struggle – the Naythuyain conference.   burma            Susanne Prager-Nyein, A sense of frustration – The return of Governor Dorman-Smith Donald Seekins, U Saw: An enigma in East Africa. Mikael Gravers, Striving for their own country: the Karen of Burma. Paul Kratoska, POW takes charge of the Thailand-Burma death railway. Stein Tønnesen, No peace for Asia. Burma Photo Gallery  China Special Edition: Part I    Part II    Part III Part IV    Part V     Part VI      China Photo Gallery ↑ back to top      Expert Analyses (click on any title) Li Lin, Road to the second KMT-CCP civil war. Kwong Chi Man, Liberating Hong Kong. Geoffrey Gunn, Macao and the British reoccupation of Hong Kong. Bruce A. Elleman, […]

    Indochina’s Indian dimension

    0924

    Natasha Pairaudeau and Chi P. Phuong Europeans and Eurasians were the targets of Vietnamese reprisals once the French coup de force of 23 September restored colonial control over Indochina, but so too were its long-term Indian residents. Six Indians were reported killed and a further seventy disappeared during the wave of violence which swept Saigon on 24 and 25 September 1945. Nor were Vietnamese objections to the French return the sole politics at play. Events in Saigon in those few short days in late September 1945 were shaped by Indian nationalist questions as well as Vietnamese ones. Among the Indians who disappeared was Antoine Ratinassamy. A Hanoi policeman, he was one among many men in Indochina’s municipal police forces and its colonial army who originated from France’s possessions in India. Descended from three generations of loyal Indian Indochinois, he was a French citizen like his forebears, and had attended Hanoi’s prestigious Lycée Albert Sarraut. He was also Tonkin-born and fluent in Vietnamese. On leave in Saigon in civilian dress, he was seized by the Viet Minh on the outskirts of Saigon on the afternoon of 25 September. Saigon’s resident Indians later told a Government of India representative that the use of British Indian troops and the employment of Indians in French police and army forces turned the Vietnamese against them. There were grounds for their convictions. Britain was widely criticized for placing its 20th Indian Division under General Gracey to oversee the Japanese surrender in Southern Vietnam. Nehru was by […]

    Mayhem and misery in Saigon

    with the 23 September coup quickly turned to horror and outrage two days later after news spread of the overnight killings at the cité Hérault

    24 September 1945. Apparently retaliating against the French coup the day before, during the night an unknown group of Vietnamese attacks the cité Hérault, a mixed quarter in Saigon home to many Eurasian families but its population swollen with an influx of French families. About 300 people including women and children are taken hostage. Perhaps 100 are killed and many more are injured, raped or tortured. Eurasians are key victims. The Viet Minh are blamed for the attack though more likely candidates are Binh Xuyen gangsters or Cao Dai followers. Gracey is also sharply critical of the failure of Japanese troops to intervene. In response, British and French forces, aided by the Japanese, clamp down hard on the city. The situation is exacerbated by severe water and power shortages due to the general strike. By early October, the core of Saigon is a ghost town. The incoming French high commissioner, Admiral Thierry d’Argenlieu, later dates the beginning of the Indochinese War to this day.

    Mayhem and misery in Saigon

    with the 23 September coup quickly turned to horror and outrage two days later after news spread of the overnight killings at the cité Hérault

    24 September. Apparently retaliating against the French coup the day before, during the night an unknown group of Vietnamese attacks the cité Hérault, a mixed quarter in Saigon home to many Eurasian families but its population swollen with an influx of French families. About 300 people including women and children are taken hostage. Perhaps 100 are killed and many more are injured, raped or tortured. Eurasians are key victims. The Viet Minh are blamed for the attack though more likely candidates are Binh Xuyen gangsters or Cao Dai followers. Gracey is also sharply critical of the failure of Japanese troops to intervene. In response, British and French forces, aided by the Japanese, clamp down hard on the city. The situation is exacerbated by severe water and power shortages due to the general strike. By early October, the core of Saigon is a ghost town. The incoming French high commissioner, Admiral Thierry d’Argenlieu, later dates the beginning of the Indochinese War to this day.

    Vo Nguyen Giap

    rehearses with his propaganda brigade

    rehearses with his propaganda brigade. This is the first of a six-part ** ‘Special Edition’ ** that presents all Vietnamese material in a single location. Click for [Part II](http://www.endofempire.asia/2015/03/16), [Part III](http://www.endofempire.asia/2015/03/17), [Part IV](http://www.endofempire.asia/2015/03/18), [Part V](http://www.endofempire.asia/2015/03/19), [Part VI](http://www.endofempire.asia/2015/03/20)
    The following expert analyses are related (sometimes indirectly) to the situation in Vietnam:
    [Shawn McHale, Cochinchina – a failed revolution?](http://www.endofempire.asia/0825-cochinchina-a-failed-revolution-3/)
    [Pierre Grosser, France restored.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0824-france-restored-3/)
    [Shawn McHale, Saigon descends into chaos.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-saigon-descends-into-chaos-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, The Cité Héraud (Saigon) Massacre.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-1-the-cite-heraud-saigon-massacre-of-september-24-25-1945-3/)
    [Shane Strate, Thailand’s support for neighbouring liberation movements.](http://www.endofempire.asia/1104-thai-support-for-neighbouring-liberation-movements-3/)
    [Natasha Pairaudeau and Chi P. Phuong, Indochina’s Indian dimension.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-2-indochinas-indian-dimension-3/)
    [Nguyễn Thế Anh, Bao Dai’s abdication and the failure of an imperial project.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0830-bao-dais-abdication-and-the-failure-of-the-imperial-project-2/)
    [David Marr, Ho Chi Minh Declares Vietnamese Independence.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0902-2-ho-chi-minh-declares-independence-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn,The great famine.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0817-6-the-great-vietnam-famine-4/)
    [David Marr, The Chinese army enters Indochina.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0909-3-the-chinese-army-enters-indochina-3/)
    [François Guillemot, Vietnam’s fractured nationalists.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0812-2-vietnams-fractured-nationalists-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, The French Permanent Military Tribunal in Saigon.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0911-2-the-french-permanent-military-tribunal-in-saigon-1945-50-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, Japanese deserters in Indochina.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0819-1-surrender-and-desertion-in-indochina-4/)

    Mayhem and misery in Saigon

    with the 23 September coup quickly turned to horror and outrage two days later after news spread of the overnight killings at the cité Hérault

    24 September. Apparently retaliating against the French coup the day before, during the night an unknown group of Vietnamese attacks the cité Hérault, a mixed quarter in Saigon home to many Eurasian families but its population swollen with an influx of French families. About 300 people including women and children are taken hostage. Perhaps 100 are killed and many more are injured, raped or tortured. Eurasians are key victims. The Viet Minh are blamed for the attack though more likely candidates are Binh Xuyen gangsters or Cao Dai followers. Gracey is also sharply critical of the failure of Japanese troops to intervene. In response, British and French forces, aided by the Japanese, clamp down hard on the city. The situation is exacerbated by severe water and power shortages due to the general strike. By early October, the core of Saigon is a ghost town. The incoming French high commissioner, Admiral Thierry d’Argenlieu, later dates the beginning of the Indochinese War to this day.

    Special Edition: Vietnam Expert Analyses

    All Vietnam-related vignettes are ‘hidden’ behind relevant headlines but, for your convenience:

    [Shawn McHale, Cochinchina – a failed revolution?](http://www.endofempire.asia/0825-cochinchina-a-failed-revolution-3/)
    [Pierre Grosser, France restored.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0824-france-restored-3/)
    [Shawn McHale, Saigon descends into chaos.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-saigon-descends-into-chaos-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, The Cité Héraud (Saigon) Massacre.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-1-the-cite-heraud-saigon-massacre-of-september-24-25-1945-3/)
    [Shane Strate, Thailand’s support for neighbouring liberation movements.](http://www.endofempire.asia/1104-thai-support-for-neighbouring-liberation-movements-3/)
    [Natasha Pairaudeau and Chi P. Phuong, Indochina’s Indian dimension.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0924-2-indochinas-indian-dimension-3/)
    [Nguyễn Thế Anh, Bao Dai’s abdication and the failure of an imperial project.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0830-bao-dais-abdication-and-the-failure-of-the-imperial-project-2/)
    [David Marr, Ho Chi Minh Declares Vietnamese Independence.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0902-2-ho-chi-minh-declares-independence-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn,The great famine.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0817-6-the-great-vietnam-famine-4/)
    [David Marr, The Chinese army enters Indochina.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0909-3-the-chinese-army-enters-indochina-3/)
    [François Guillemot, Vietnam’s fractured nationalists.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0812-2-vietnams-fractured-nationalists-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, The French Permanent Military Tribunal in Saigon.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0911-2-the-french-permanent-military-tribunal-in-saigon-1945-50-3/)
    [Geoffrey Gunn, Japanese deserters in Indochina.](http://www.endofempire.asia/0819-1-surrender-and-desertion-in-indochina-4/)

    Scholar-participants

    NIAS-1945 was formally launched by Gerald Jackson, NIAS Press’s Editor-in-Chief, in February 2015, when General Editors David Chandler, Li Narangoa and Robert Cribb agreed to join the project. This team then recruited editors for each country explored. Country editors were authorized to invite scholars to their group; each group worked independently of all others. Each team curated the chronology as relevant to their country, determined which issues should be explored in greater depth, and produced the related vignettes. It turned out that crafting the chronology entries required considerable intellectual energy. We are grateful to our curators, whose only direct acknowledgement appears right here: Li Lin and Kwong Chi Man (China), Anthony Reid (Indonesia), Li Narangoa (Manchuria and Mongolia), Don Seekins (Burma), Kyung Moon Hwang (Korea), Bruce Reynolds and Shane Strate (Thailand), David Chandler (Cambodia), Martin Rathie and Vatthana Pholsena (Laos), Ricardo Jose (Philippines), Clay Eaton and Paul Kratoska (Malaya), and the nearly entire Vietnam team (David Marr, Shawn McHale, Francois Guillemot, Geoffrey Gunn, and Natasha Pairaudeau). Due to the constraints of a printed volume, every country team strained under the pressure to leave crucial aspects under-explored. This limitation disappears in the e-format and additional vignettes will appear as they are completed. If you would like to write a vignette, please contact us. Independence and autonomy ensured that the real experts were in control of scholarly production. We also made an editorial decision to allow our scholars to write on their own authority. Citations to the literature in support of the […]

    Further reading

    If you know of a source that should be on our reading list, please share it with us! Name(required) Email(required) Comment(required) Further Reading Ahmad, Abu Talib (2006) ‘The impact of the Japanese Occupation on colonial and anti-colonial armies in Southeast Asia,’ In Karl Hack & Tobias Rettig (eds), Colonial Armies in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge. ——— (2002) ‘Japanese policy towards Islam in Malaya: A reassessment,’ Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 33:1, pp. 107–122. Akashi, Yoji; Hara, Fujio and Matusani Satoshi (2007) Bibliography on the Japanese occupation of Malaya, Singapore and Northern Borneo, 1941–1945. compiled by Forum for Research Materials on the Japanese Occupation of Malaya and Singapore. Tokyo: Ryūkei Shosha Anderson, Benedict (2005) Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944–1946. Sheffield: Equinox. Armstrong, Charles (2004) The North Korean Revolution, 1945–1950. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Askew, David (ed. 2007) Buried Bodies, looted Treasure and Government Propaganda, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books. Atwood, Christopher (2005), ‘Poems of Fraternity: Literary Responses to the Attempted Reunification of Inner Mongolia and the Mongolian People’s Republic,’ In György Kara (ed.), The Black Master: Essays on Central Eurasia in Honor of György Kara on His 70th Birthday. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Avenell, Simon. (forthcoming 2016) ‘Antinuclear Radicals: Scientific Experts and Antinuclear Activism in Japan,’ Science, Technology, and Society: An International Journal. ——— (2010) Making Japanese Citizens: Civil Society and the Mythology of the Shimin in Postwar Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.  Bao Dai, S.M. (1980) Le Dragon d’Annam. Paris: Plon. Barshay, Andrew, The […]

    Headlines and Analysis

     ‘top anchor’ Click and go: Burma, China, Indochina I (Cambodia and Laos), Indochina II (Vietnam), Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaya, Mongolia and Manchuria, Philippines, Thailand   Every Front Page (click on any date) August     1 2 3 4   5     6     7     8     9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31      Analytic Introduction. Justifying the Bomb. John Dower, Always controversial. Stein Tønnesson, No peace for Asia. Marc Gallicchio, General Order No. 1. Geoffrey Gunn, The great Vietnam famine.   September            1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Andrew Barshay, Kazuki Yasuo (1911–74): The witness of art .Tessa Morris-Suzuki, The Japanese Military and the ‘Comfort Women’. Geoffrey Gunn, Surrender and desertion in Indochina. October  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31         Shigeru Sato, Forced labourers and their fate. Not going home: the fate of Japanese POWs. Paul Kratoska, Banana money: Malaya’s wartime currency.  Nov.  1   8  15  2   9  16  3   10 17  4  11 18  5  12 19  6  13 20  7  14 … .  . ↑ back to top   burma                            […]