12 November 1945. Despite the creation of a formal army, the TKR, on 5 October, defence of the new Indonesian Republic is still highly decentralized. Local commanders are negotiating with Japanese forces and assessing local vulnerabilities and opportunities without reference to any central authority. Finally, regional commanders meet in Yogyakarta and elect the commander from Banyumas Regency, a former auxiliary commander under the Japanese called Sudirman, choosing him in preference to Oerip Sumohardjo (see p. 138). The election marks a shift in Republican policy towards more forceful military resistance, as Sudirman immediately orders an assault on British and Dutch forces in Ambarawa that leads to their withdrawal.