31 August. Thai Prime Minister Khuang Aphaiwong and his cabinet, responsible for maintaining official Thai cooperation with the Japanese during the final year of the war (while turning a blind eye to Free Thai activities in the country), resigns in favour of an interim cabinet headed by Thawi Bunyaket, a Free Thai ally of Regent Pridi Phanomyong.
4 September. Thai–British negotiations on a peace treaty get off to a rocky start at SEAC headquarters in Kandy, Ceylon when Thai negotiators reject Lord Louis Mountbatten’s demand that they sign an interim military agreement; they complain that it also deals with political matters. Col. John Coughlin, the local OSS commander who radioed the document to Washington, shares their concern.
12 September. The remnants of the once-vast Japanese forces in Burma formally surrender to the Allies; about 70,000 troops are taken prisoner. Since the disastrous failure of the main Japanese army in July to break out of Burma, its few survivors together with other detachments (including units of the Indian National Army) have struggled to retreat east into Thailand or south into Malaya. Many have been killed by Karen irregulars.
8 September. Siam’s representatives sign a four-point military agreement with the British at SEAC headquarters in Kandy, Ceylon. Even though Thai Regent Pridi Phanomyong had deemed it expedient to accept the more extensive British demands presented on 4 September, pressure from Washington via London forced Lord Louis Mountbatten to reduce the proposal to purely military matters.
17 September. Seni Pramoj, former Minister to Washington and leader of the Free Thai movement abroad, formally takes office as Thailand’s Prime Minister. Regent Pridi Phanomyong, hoping to capitalize on his reputation as a staunch supporter of the Allied cause, has chosen Seni to head the cabinet despite his royalist background.
20 September. Tensions between the Thai authorities and Chinese nationalists, apparent since the end of the war in August, flare into gunfights with police and looting of shops in the Chinese district in Bangkok. The incidents lead to a general strike by Chinese merchants and the deaths of more than 30 people over the next few weeks.
25 September. Members of the pro-Allied Free Thai underground lead a ‘Victory Parade’ through the heart of the Thai capital in an effort to further associate Thailand with the Allies. The British boycott the event. American officers are ordered not to march but watch the parade from near the reviewing stand.
3 September. Advance elements of the British occupation force arrive in Bangkok, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Geoffrey Evans. The Thai government is greatly disconcerted by reports that the force, charged with disarming and repatriating Japanese troops, is expected to number as many as 20,000, mainly Indian soldiers.
11 September. Occupation authorities in Japan designate 39 former Japanese leaders as war criminals and order their arrests. Among their number is General Tōjō Hideki, who as prime minister presided over Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Tōjō has already attempted suicide before being taken to prison. He is later found guilty at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal and hanged in December 1948. Eventually 5,700 Japanese military personnel will be tried in war crimes tribunals throughout Asia.