What are now Mongolia and China were components of the Yuan dynasty (1271– 1368) founded by Khubilai Khan. After the collapse of Yuan rule, the Chinese Ming dynasty took over the territory south of the Great Wall and the Mongols retreated to the north. In 17th century, the Manchus collaborated with the Mongols to bring the Ching dynasty to power. Manchu emperors presented themselves as … (click below to continue reading Cribb and Li’s Prelude)
9 August. One minute after midnight, about 1.5 million Soviet troops launch operation August Storm, a giant pincer attack from Mongolia and eastern Siberia on Japan’s badly under-strength Kwantung Army, which is in the middle of a redeployment. The western prong includes Mongolian units even though the Mongolian People’s Republic has not declared war. Its attack out of the Gobi desert into Inner Mongolia and across the supposedly impassable Khingan range into central Manchuria is completely unexpected.
10 August. A day after its forces joined the Soviet attack on Manchuria, the Mongolian People’s Republic formally declares war on Japan and receives the first of many unification calls from Inner Mongolian leaders. Next day, the official organUnen Sonin, which only a month earlier had switched to Cyrillic, reverts to traditional Mongolian script to reach a wider audience. It reports that the war aims to unify all Mongols on the Mongolian plateau.
- This is the first of a five-part ** ‘Special Edition’ ** that presents all Mongolia and Manchuria materials in a single location. Click for Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V The following expert analyses are related to the situation in Mongolia and Manchuria: Bruce A. Elleman, Sino-Soviet friendship and Outer Mongolia. Tsedendamba Batbayar, Mongolian independence and the United States. Uradyn E. Bulag, ‘Uninvited’ war and the Mongol trophy. Ravdan Bold, Mongolian participation in the war against Japan. Bruce A. Elleman, Soviet sea denial in Port Arthur and Dairen. Christian Hess, The fate of Japanese settlers in Manchuria. Li Narangoa, De Wang and the dream for a Mongolian State. Tsedendamba Batbayar, Mongolia’s national referendum for independence. Li Narangoa, Puyi: a survivor. Uradyn E. Bulag, The memorial park of the martyrs of Soviet-Mongolian allied forces.
10 August. With Japanese forces in Manchuria reeling before the Soviet onslaught and MPR troops advancing in Inner Mongolia, Stalin personally warns the Chinese government to sign a friendship treaty before it is too late. Negotiations have been stalled for months, with China resisting Soviet demands for extensive concessions in Manchuria and recognition of Outer Mongolian independence.
10 August. Uncertainty about who will do what, and when, characterizes the entire region in mid-August. While the Philippines, for example, is beginning to rebuild after years of war and Japanese occupation, the country seethes with preparations for the invasion of Japan. U.S. military supplies pour in. Hospitals and other facilities are established in anticipation of the invasion efforts. Elements of the Philippine Army are also involved. Early but unconfirmed news of Japan’s surrender on the 10th results in premature celebrations in Manila, including the firing of weapons. Similar early celebrations erupt four days later when the U.S. Office of War Information newspaper Free Philippines prematurely announces the end of the war.
11 August. Soviet–MPR forces take Sunid and the palace of Prince Demchugdongrob (De Wang), ruler of the Japanese-supported ‘Mongolian Autonomous State’. At the time, Prince De is in his capital, Kalgan, but his family are captured and taken to Ulaanbaatar, where they are housed in comfortable quarters
8 August. Ending months of Japanese attempts to save the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact and have the Soviets broker a peace deal with the Allies, Soviet foreign minister Molotov informs Japanese ambassador Satō Naotake that the Soviet Union will be at war with Japan from 9 August. It is early evening in Moscow when Satō is told but just before midnight on the border with Manchuria.
9 August. The double shock of the Soviet invasion and bombing of Nagasaki causes Prime Minister Suzuki Kantarō and some ministers to urge an immediate end to the war; others remain steadfast. At this stage none will openly suggest accepting the unconditional surrender demanded by the Allies. As meetings continue into the night, the Emperor is asked to decide on surrender or continued resistance. Reluctantly, he chooses surrender.
10 August. Chu Teh, CCP commander in the north, announces that Japanese soldiers may surrender to any anti-Japanese armed forces (including the CCP). Next day, CCP leader Lin Piao begins force-marching a large army along the Peiping–Mukden Railway into Manchuria ahead of Chinese government forces.